Monday, April 29, 2013

MOOCs: more action in 1 year than last 1000 years

What happened here? MOOC mania seemed to come from nowhere.
Faster than Facebook and here to stay, in just a year MOOCs emerged from a
unique mix of entrepreneurial spirit, a few leading US Universities, supported
by not-for-profits and venture capital. It’s an ecosystem that can take an idea
and support it through to a sustainable business. That’s impressive.

Big Bang Khan

Whatever the obscure origin of the word or examples of
previous HE online courses, MOOCs mania has its origin in one, big-bang source
– Salman Khan. Khan was a necessary condition for MOOC mania. It was he who
popularised the short video where the lecturer was literally taken out of the
picture. Forget all of that YouTube EDU and iTunes U stuff, basically dumps of
dull lectures, it was Khan who got the big numbers by doing something different.
OER had also stalled with MITOpenCourseWare languishing and OpenLearn an
also-ran; resource dump that simply mimicked all that was lazy and bad about
internal HE courses. They were within the paradigm. To be fair, Downes and
Siemens were different, and certainly deserve praise for avoiding this
old-school approach, but I don’t see any real causal influence on Khan and
subsequent MOOC mania. Sebastian Thrun has already paid his dues to Khan.

Why was Khan the catalyst?

This is interesting, as it’s yet another example of
innovation coming from outside of the bubble. It took a hedge fund manager to
shake up education because he didn’t have any HE baggage. Khan’s developed his
ideas through direct contact with learners, not through research project or
grants. It was in dealing with his young relatives that he suddenly thought –
guess what, I can save time here by doing cool videos. Neither was he hung up
on the whole ‘academic hubris’ thing. It didn’t matter that his face wasn’t on
screen. He understood that learning maths was about the maths, not the face;
semantic memory, not episodic. In short, he dumped the long-form lecture. This
was about the learner, not the teacher. His second masterstroke was to slam
them up on YouTube. He intrinsically understood scalability, first, in terms of
the rapid production of short videos, secondly by making them available on an
already existing free platform. Then, something crucial happened, funding from
the Gates Foundation ($5.5m), Ann and John Doerr ($110k) and Google ($2m).
Lastly, remember the ecosystem here – Khan is a Harvard  MIT guy – the institutions that subsequently
funded edX.


One University stands out as MOOC central, that’s Stanford.
Paul Hennessey is easily the most visionary leader of any Uni8versity on the
planet. The man who categorically does NOT want to build any more lecture
theatres (that’s counts as a radical position in HE). What Stanford does, and
we in Europe should be envious, is understand how to turn students into
aspirational autonomous achievers. It’s in the DNA of that organisation. Udacity
owes its very existence to Stanford, in that Sebastian Thrun, inspired by Khan,
set up his Stanford course online and that led to the founding of Udacity. Ng
and Koller, both Stanford academics, set up Coursera. NovoED was also a
Stanford product, originally Venture Lab, started by Amin Saberi and Farnaz Ronaghi. Let’s not forget
Class2go,another open source product out of Stanford, that has merged with edX.
Harvard and MIT have each put $30m into edX (other money coming from the
liks of Jonathan Grayer and Philipe Lafont).


Another key player has been inspirational in all this - the Gates
Foundation. I’ve dealt with these guys and they’re good. They do their research,
identify the sweet spots and take action. It was a matter of weeks that a company
I had invested in, Cogbooks, who have real adaptive learning and MOOC product, had
been spotted through research, invited to the US and put in front of potential
customers. They put a cool $5.5m into Khan, $4m into edX. Then we have the
MacArthur Foundation, Hewlett and the National Science foundation weighing in
with other supportive initiatives.


The third ingredient is, of course, capital. When you have a
world class institution, like Stanford, producing students and academics with
ambition, it attracts capital. Capital matters, as it allows you to keep up
product development, while keeping your promise on delivery. It also allows you
to bring on business expertise and support. Coursera has had $16m from Kleiner
Perkins Caufield & Byers and NewEnterprise Associates. Andreesen Horowitz
put $15 into Udacity.


Lastly, don’t forget existing companies such as Google who
put $2m into the Khan Academy and Pearson who have teamed up with both Udacity
and edX to offer proctored examinations through Pearson VUE. Desire2learn, a
player in the HE VLE market raised $80 million and acquired Wiggio, a group collaboration
tool, and Degree Compass, a student support tool. They have entered the MOOC
market, with the venerable Siemens and Downes.


It took a drop-out like Gates to turbo-charge the PC
industry, a maverick like Jobs to take it much further, Bezos to transform book
selling, Torvalds open source and subsequently OER, Jimmy Wales to give us
Wikipedia and Khan, then Thrun, to give us MOOCs. As I keep saying, we’ve had more pedagogic change over the last 10 years than the last 1000 years because
of these outsiders and technology. It happened because the time is right. HE is
in a mess with spiralling costs, old agrarian timetables and old pedagogies.
Outside pressure, in the form of entrepreneurial spirit, some leading Universities,
with support from not-for-profits and that all important ingredient, capital,
has given us, in a year, an alternative to something that has been around for
nearly 1000 years. MOOCs are a powerful force for good. They promise to break
down the barriers between higher education and the rest of the world, to the
benefit of both.

MOOCs: taxonomy of 8 types of MOOC

MOOCs: Who’s using MOOCs? 10 different target audiences

MOOCs: a breath of fresh air, albeit the same air

Thursday, April 25, 2013

MOOCs: Who’s using MOOCs? 10 different target audiences

Fascinating graphic,a sit shows that nearly 42% of the target audience for MOOCs are not the developed world. It also raises an interesting question. Who is it for?’ are four
words that tease out a MOOC strategy or lack of strategy. For most it is a
marketing exercise in terms of the brand, a way of reducing internal costs on
high volume courses, a way of recruiting potential students (directly or
through their parents). Yet others see it as a way of flushing out funding from
Alumni or presenting an ‘accessible’ face to Government.

For MOOCs, several target audiences have emerged:

1. Internal
students on course – cost savings on volume courses

2. Internal
students not on course – expanding student experience

3. Potential
students national –major source of income

4. Potential
students international – major source of income

5. Potential
students High school – reputation and preparation

6. Parents –
significant in student choice

7. Alumni –
potential income and influencers

8. Lifelong learners
– late and lifelong adult learners

9. Professionals
– related to professions and work

10. Government – part of access strategy

Lifelong learning MOOC

This is the big one, as it produces the big numbers. There
seems to be a genuine thirst for courses on a wide range of subjects for people
who just want to learn more. This is heartening. Rather than locking in
learning within expensive institutions, we may be on the edge of a cliff from
which new forms of learning can soar. What’s surprised people is the diverse
nature of this group, as they come from lots of different countries.

The set of
people who are external is huge and diverse in terms of age, national v
international, nationality, ethnicity and first language. You really
have to focus down with some profiling (define a typical user) or risk negative
reactions from some groups. Most Coursera course are aimed at an external
audience but who is this audience? If your course is for people with busy
lives, is it wise to offer such strictly synchronous courses?

Internal + external MOOC

Do you want your existing students, either slated for the existing
course or others, to do your MOOC? If MOOCs are to fulfil their promise of
changing the way we teach and learn and reduce internal costs, this may be

Sebastian Thrun’s famous MOOC did take existing students,
none of whom were in the top performing 400 students. NovoED aim to produce group
MOOCs aimed at both internal and external students. It has happened, will
happen, and if MOOCs are to change the face of HE, it must happen.

University of Alberta’s Dino 101 Dinosaur Paleobiology MOOC hopes to attract huge
numbers and I’m sure it will. Due for release in September 2013 it’s billed as
being “led by Phil Currie, the world’s premier dinosaur
hunter”. This is much smarter than the blatant AUE approach, as it is aimed at
three audiences:

Free to anyone

University of Alberta
students can do it and get a credit (core business0

Students from
around the world for course accreditation for a modest fee

This is more strategic as it
takes the one asset and targets three audiences. They’ve also cleverly sneaked
in another marketing objective – tourism, “It will also help highlight the best
of Alberta’s rich dinosaur assets”. Smart thinking.

Outreach MOOC

Many MOOCs are more marketing than learning. There one
species of MOOC, the outreach MOOC or more accurately the marketing MOOC, that
is sprouting up everywhere. These MOOCs are aimed at marketing your brand to
new students, parents of potential students and alumni, all potential sources
of income, hence the use of the word ‘marketing’. I know academe hate the word
‘marketing’ unless it’s a course in their revenue-rich business school but this
is a marketing MOOC.

A good example is the Australian National University, who is
building an edX MOOC aimed at high school students, alumni, adult learners and
parents, the first two topics are 6 week courses on Astrophysics and Engaging
India (English & Hindi). She admitted her University had no real strategy
for MOOCs but thought this was a way of testing the water. At least she was
honest, as I see precious little strategic thinking around MOOCs but lots of
groupthink and bandwagon behaviour.

Professional MOOC

A lot of IT courses are clearly aimed at the skills market
and professionals who want to get a job or promotion. Udemy is full of such
courses. There’s nothing new here, other perhaps, in them being free, though
many do have a cost. This type of course has been long available on the web. An
interesting example is the Google MOOC, aimed at a specific skill, improving
your search skills. We can expect many more of these, MOOCs that tackle a
specific issue.

Marketing problem

Many MOOCs want to hit a number of these audiences but this
is not easy as they have different needs in terms of approach, commitment,
start times, accreditation needs, technical issues and support. Knowing your
target audience from the start matters, as it influences the choice of
platform, as well as design and nature of the content. Initial data suggests
that large numbers of people from around the world, who do not have easy access
to Higher Education, have taken MOOCs (41%). The language level for those with
English as a second language may therefore have to be considered, as well as
level of difficulty, relevant examples, appropriate peer activity, group needs,
synchronous or asynchronous, and so on. You may also want to be clear in the
registration process about the data you want to identify and gather for later


The problem is that the decision makers often don’t have the
marketing skills to differentiate between different addressable audiences. External
adult learners may not want a long-winded, over-engineered, six to ten week
course on anything. Life’s too short. Yet academics are used to producing
courses of this semester length. What many may want are mini MOOCs. They may want
them to be asynchronous starting and ending when convenient for them. This, of
course, is exactly what’s happening. All in all, however, the good news is that
MOOCs are forcing HE institutions to change. MOOCs may very well be the force
that makes them more open, transparent and relevant. There will, of course, be
a backlash, but the digital genie is out of the bottle - MOOCs are here to

Sunday, April 21, 2013

MOOCs: a breath of fresh air, albeit the same air

A Secretary of State for Education in the US likened
Education to a giant blob. No matter what you did to to change the blob, it
always healed up or reformed back into its original shape. Are MOOCs puncturing
or reshaping the blob? Or are they just orbiting the blob?

Forces from the outside world, namely technology and hard
economics are putting pressure on the blob and MOOCs are, potentially, blob
busters. Their potency comes from the fact that they’ve burst open the limitations of old teaching methods and reach out with alternatives that are part of the more general open culture of the web.

MOOCs appropriate MOOPs

Nothing’s new with MOOCs. Massive Open Online Pedagogies
(MOOPs), such as short videos, search, wikis, quizzes, forums, collaborative groups,
online problems, online assignments, peer learning and peer assessment have all
been around for some time and are now being absorbed into MOOCs. I haven’t found a single brand-new, online pedagogic
technique in any MOOC. This is neither a criticism nor a problem. The iPhone is
a cluster of existing technologies where the sum is greater than the parts.
Indeed, Brian Arthur’s in The Nature of Technology thinks that
this is an essential feature of technology, the coalescence of existing
technologies to create something exciting and new.

MOOCs provide an ideal sandbox for reflection, debate, research,
experimentation, outreach and real action on pedagogy, on a scale we’ve never
seen before. Every facet of learning is being re-examined and in some cases

So what sort of pedagogies have been appropriated into
MOOCs? Here’s just seven MOOPs (Massive Open Online Pedagogy) that have been used
in MOOCs:

MOOP 1 – Short videos

Recorded lectures are still relatively rare, accounting for
a tiny fraction of those delivered, but they’ve had a profound pedagogic
effect. A soon as they took off the digital genie was out of the lecture hall. The
evidence is clear, students want, use, like and benefit from them. The
unrecorded, 1 hour lecture (only an hour as the Babylonians had a sexidecimal
number system) remains the main obstacle to pedagogic progress in HE. It puts a
block on the four main evidence-based features of learning; attention, active
learning, adequate feedback and spaced practice. MOOCs use recorded
lectures/videos extensively.

YouTube, used by hundreds of millions, has had a profound
effect on MOOCs,proving that less is often more as was video sequences long
inserted or made available in online learning courses. TED, watched by
millions, reinforced the need to make video lectures focused, short, with
injected passion and less reliance on PowerPoint. MOOCs quickly learnt this
lesson. Then we had the Khan Academy, a huge influence on MOOCs, who
effectively removed the lecturer from the screen to focus on the content with
narration and, in this case hand-drawn maths. This works because, in maths, you
need to work semantic and episodic memory. This pedagogic approach was
enthusiastically adopted by Sebastian Thrun at Udacity.

MOOP 2 – Content and the humble hyperlink

Under this you have documents, reading lists, links and so
on that use the hyperlink, to give students access to content. The humble
hyperlink is the hero of online pedagogy, the simple idea that knowledge can be
linked and made accessible by a simple click. Long before MOOCs, the hyperlink
had been the mainstay for interactivity. It allowed the expansion of, drilling
into or jumping across content, thereby personalising learning. This is the
glue that holds the course content together.

MOOP 3 – Online assessment

Online formative and summative assessment, always a stalwart
of online learning, became the norm in MOOCs. Conditional branching also
allowed different routes to be taken, remedial loops presented and simulations
to be constructed, all based on performance. Given the very large numbers of
students and paucity of teacher bandwidth, this made sense. Students had to get
software-based feedback, if large numbers of students were to progress through
the course.

MOOP 4 – Peer learning

Forums and chat are among the oldest Massive Open Online
Pedagogies, used since the very inception of the web. In MOOCs, forums and
other software assisted forms of peer learning genuinely seem to aid learning.
Students do like the experience of getting help and encouragement from other
students. Peer learning is scalable. Indeed, it is a pedagogy that benefits
from scale. The more learners the better and more efficient peer matching and learning
can be. Peer learning also encourages critical thinking, peers are often closer
to the problems than teachers with bonding a wonderful side effect. An often
forgotten benefit is that teaching is also a powerful way to learn. Above all,
we know from the work of Mazur and many others, that it increases learning,
retention and attainment. Arora, Peerwise and many others have been used for
years in sophisticated, peer learning. In practice, by contract, peer learning
is still in its infancy in MOOCs. Coursera’s forums are often described as
chaotic and confusing. However, MOOCs are bringing peer learning to the
attention of many, encouraging its use.

MOOP 5 – Peer assessment

More controversially, peer assessment in terms of comments,
judgements and even marks, are given y peers. Peermark and others have been
doing this for some time. It gets round the problem of scaling up students
numbers while relying on a small number of academics. The real question is
what’s lost in the process of scaling. To be fair, many who have seen this in
action (and it’s early days) think it is reasonable and pretty fair.
Participants in MOOCs are supportive and keen to be as objective as possible.
It’s not as if traditional assessment in HE is in any way efficient or even
truly objective. Formative assessment is often scarce, very light and late. It
is not uncommon to wait weeks for an essay to be marked and returned. This
makes MOOC peer assessment seem like a quantum leap.

MOOP 6 – LMS/LCMs/VLE/CRM functionality

Although they would be loathed to admit it, many MOOCs run
light LMS/LCMS/VLE/CRM  structures for
registration, email, comms, assignments, peer learning, peer assessment, handling
large amounts of tracked data and so on. MOOCs are massive and therefore need
to be managed by scalable software. None of this is new, as typical LMSs/LMCSs/VLEs
have long coped with copious amounts of learners, their management and data.

MOOP 7 - Social media

Social Media, such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ is a MOOP
used by hundreds of millions, so it is natural that they would incorporated
into, or at least used parasitically, by MOOCs. In fact, most MOOCs go nowhere
near social media but those that do tend to simply have a Facebook page or
twitter hashtag and feed. MOOCs are not sophisticated in terms of porosity to
outside sources and more sophisticated uses of social media.

MOOCs are aggregated MOOPs

This is just one part of a general move towards the online democritisation, decentralisation and disintermediation
of Higher Education. In truth, this had already started with the annihilation
of older offline pedagogies with newer Massive Open Online Pedagogies (MOOPs).
Most of the components in MOOCs merely reuse what was already established on
the web – search (Google), hyperlinks, short videos (YouTube, TED, Khan Academy
etc), wikis (Wikipedia, Wikispaces etc), communication (email, chat, forums
etc.), collaboration (social media), peer learning, LMS/CRM (mass email and
comms management etc.).

MOOCs are not really a single innovation, as all MOOCs are
not created equal – they’re all-sorts. Neither are they innovative in terms of
pedagogy, as they are invariably assemblages of previously existing online
pedagogies. MOOCs assemble different existing MOOP component, and it’s really
an. umbrella term for large online courses, and those have been around for a
long time. What’s important is that it is a leap forward compared to many high
volume, lecture-led, low feedback, low contact courses, that are all too common
in Higher Education.

Nothing new under the sun

Ecclesiastes, that most idiosyncratic book of the bible,
says ‘there’s nothing new under the sun
and so it is with MOOCs. We have yet to see the serious use of high-end,
adaptive techniques, AI, different species of high-end simulation, gaming and
the many more adventurous forms of online learning experiences. The use of peer
learning has been patchy and the use of social media has been peripheral. To be
fair we can already see that the investment and commitment is there to see
MOOCs evolve and start to push the pedagogic boundaries. They are a breath of
fresh air, albeit the same air.


Arthur, W. B. (2009). The nature of
technology: What it is and how it evolves
. New York: Free Press.

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A
user's manual
. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

MOOCs: taxonomy of 8 types of MOOC

We're not payin' because this guy...

...this guy's a fuckin' mooc.

But I didn't say nothin'.

And we don't pay moocs.

A mook? I'm a mooc?


What's a mooc?

What's a mooc?

I don't know.

What's a mooc?

You can't call me a mooc.

I can't?



Scorcese's Mean Streets (1973)

What are MOOCs?

The future is already here, it’s just not very evenly
” said William Gibson, that is certainly true of MOOCs. We have MOOC
mania but ‘all MOOCs are not created equal’ and there’s lots of species of
MOOC. This is good and we must learn from these experiments to move forward and
not get bogged down in old traditionalist v modernist arguments. MOOCs will
inform and shape what we do within and without institutions. What is important
is to focus on the real needs of real learners.

Taxonomy based on pedagogy

To this end, it is important to define a taxonomy of MOOCs not
from the institutional but the pedagogic perspective, by their learning functionality,
not by their origins. So here's a starting list of eight:









1. transferMOOCs

Transfer MOOCs literally take existing courses and decant
them into a MOOC platform, on the pedagogic assumption that they are teacher-led
and many rely on a ‘name’ of the institution or academic to attract learners.
The pedagogic assumption is that of transfer from teacher and course content to
learner. Many mimic the traditional academic course with lectures, short
quizzes, set texts and assessments. You could describe them as being on the
cutting edge of tradition. Coursera courses largely fall
into this category.

2. madeMOOCs

Made MOOCs
tend to more innovative in their use of video, avoiding talking heads in favour
of Khan Academy or Udacity hand on board sequences. They also tend to have more
of a formal, quality driven approach to the creation of material and more
crafted and challenging assignments, problem solving and various levels of sophisticated
software-driven interactive experiences. Peer work and peer-assessment, used to
cope with the high teacher-student ratios. Udacity take this approach.

3. synchMOOCs

Synchronous MOOCs have a fixed start date, tend to have
fixed deadlines for assignments and assessments and a clear end date. They often
around the agricultural, academic calendar. For example, Coursera offer courses
on strict startand end dates with clear deadlines for assignment. Udacity
started with their ‘hexamester’ 7 week courses with fixed start dates. Many argue
that this helps motivation and aligns teacher availability and student cohort

4. asynchMOOCs

Asynchronous MOOCs have no or frequent start dates, tend to
have no or looser deadlines for assignments and assessments and no final end
date. The pedagogic advantages of asynchronous MOOCs is that they can literally
be taken anytime, anywhere and clearly work better over different time zones. Interestingly,
Udacity have relaxed their courses to enrol and proceed at user’s own pace.
Some sceptics point towards this as being a tactic to reduce drop-out rates due
to missed assignment deadlines. Note that Coursera offers a completely open
self-study option but this does not warrant a certificate of completion.

5. adaptiveMOOCs

Adaptive MOOCs use adaptive algorithms to present
personalised learning experiences, based on dynamic assessment and data
gathering on the course and courses. They rely on networks of pre-requisites and
take learners on different, personalised paths through the content. This has
been identified by the Gates Foundation as an important new area for large
scale productivity in online courses. These MOOCs tend not to deliver flat,
linear structured knowledge but leaning experiences driven by back-end
algorithms. Analytics are also used to change and improve the course in the
future. Cogbooks is a leading example of this type of MOOC. LINK

6. groupMOOCs

Group MOOCs start with small, collaborative groups of
students. The aim is to increase student retention. Stanford, the MOOC
manufacturing factory, has spun out NovoEd (formerly Venture Lab) which offers
both MOOCs and closed, limited number, internal courses. They argue that some
subjects and courses, such as entrepreneurship and business courses, lose a lot
in looses, open MOOC structures and need a more focussed approach to groupwork.
The groups are software selected by geography, ability and type. They have
mentors and rate each others commitment and progress. Groups are also dissolved
and reformed during the course.

7. connectivistMOOCS

Pioneered by Geperge Siemens and Stephen Downes, these connectivist
MOOCs rely on the connections across a network rather than pre-defined content. Siemen’s famously  said “cMOOCs focus on knowledge creation and
generation whereas xMOOCs focus on knowledge duplication
”. More simply,
Smith says “in an xMOOC you watch videos,
in a cMOOC you make videos
”. The whole point is to harvest and share
knowledge that is contributed by the participants and not see the ‘course’ as a
diet of fairly, fixed knowledge. These course tend to create their own trajectory,
rather than follow a linear path.

8. miniMOOCSs

So far, MOOCs tend to be associated with Universities, whose
courses last many weeks and often fit the semester structure and timetable of
traditional institutions. We have also seem=n the emergence of shorter MOOCs
for content and skills that do not require such long timescales. This is mpore
typical of commercial e-learning courses, which tend to be more intense
experiences that last for hours and days, not weeks. They are more suitable for
precise domains and tasks with clear learning objectives. The Open Badges
movement tends to be more aligned with this type of MOOC.


Note that these are not mutually exclusive categories, as one
can have a transfer MOOC that is synchronous or asynchronous. What’s important
here is that we see MOOCs as informing the debate around learning to get over
the obvious problems of relevance, access and cost. This is by no means a
definitive taxonomy but it’s a start. I’d really appreciate any comments, critiques
or new categories. 

Monday, April 15, 2013

Latin: Mary Beard and why it has no place in core curricula

is the key word

So says the venerable Mary Beard in her new book Confronting the Classics. “the classical tradition is something to be
engaged with and sparred against, not merely replicated and mouthed
Exactly. Yet when I dared to criticise the place of Latin in our school
curricula, in two separate posts, you’d have thought I was the barbarian at the
gates of contemporary civilisation. First, I outlined the research that
scotched that old myth about Latin helping you learn second languages such as
French, Spanish, Italian and so on. (Latin makes learning a second language more difficult) Second, I outlined the true reasons for
Latin being so prominent in our 21st century schools, many of them
made unpleasant reading (10 reasons not to learn Latin).

At the time Mary Beard commented on these pieces in her
characteristic, level-headed and rational manner. She defended Latin but
thought that Greek may be a better option if you’re after ideas, philosophy,
epics and drama. She also gave short thrift to the old chestnuts used by
Latinists to keep Latin as a key subject in school curricula, seeing it as a
product of a narrow curriculum and unimaginably, dull pedagogy.

ad hoc arguments for Latin

In her latest book she tackles the subject of learning Latin
head-on in the introductory essay. Latin was “for generations the gatekeeper of rigid class, privilege and social
exclusivity…it gave you access to a narrow elite
”. She rejects the
hyperbolic claims that Latin improves intellectual and linguistic development,
IQ or the learning of French, Italian and Spanish (a much loved dinner-party
trope) and claims that most of these sort of arguments that support learning
Latin are “perilous”.

Latin a matter or proportionality

the overall strength
of the classics is not to be measured by exactly how many young people know
Latin or Greek from school or University. It is better measured by asking how
many believe that there should be people in the world who do know Latin and
” This about sums up my position. I am not against the study of Latin
or any other dead languages. This is largely a matter of proportionality for our
Universities. By all means let a few study Latin. What I am against is too
prominent a role for Latin in contemporary school curriculas. Our young people have enough on their plate at 5-18, as the
range of subjects expands to include a wider range of science subjects, IT and
other vocational skills. A dead language at this stage is merely the dead hand
of educational history being played out by interested parties.


There is only one
good reason for learning Latin, and that is that you want to read what is
written in it….
” This is another key point made by Beard. Let’s forget
about all of those excuses for Latin being in some special intellectual
category. It is not. Taking the line, as Gove did recently (he had to furiously
backtrack), that Latin should be given special status above IT and every other
vocational subject on the curriculum is absurd. To do, as Toby Young has done,
and make it compulsory, is idiotic.

PS Sense of wonderment

What Mary Beard’s book is largely about, is instilling a
sense of ‘sense of wonderment’ in the classical world. I’ve had that since the
age of 15 or so, without studying Latin. Beard excels in this task in both
print and on TV. This book, in English, is about scholarship ridding us of
misconceptions and myths. She does this with panache. Knossos, Pompeii and the
Laocoon are stripped of their misleading modern appearances. Those pesky, verbatim,
Thucididean speeches are subject to a re-evaluation. Alexander the Great and
Cleopatra are placed in the context of later ‘spin’. There is a reassessment of
the Galba to Vespasian period, a stirring defence of those bad boys of Rome,
Caligula and Nero. Asterix the Gaul is seen as a distortion of Rome’s model of
governance. The archaeological evidence for the Boadicean rebellion is
reassessed (there’s almost nothing). Great book by a wonderful woman who
understands that the Classics are to be cherished and debated, not defended
uncritically and fossilised.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Malaysia: Chromebook/cloud provision for 10 million! (not taking the tablets)

Malaysia has today announced the national adoption of Google Apps for 10
million (read that again) teachers, students and parents. Primary and secondary
schools will get Chromebooks and use cloud services. This is a massive attempt to
reform and turbo-charge a national education system through technology and I
applaud their vision.

In one stroke they’ve got a solution that solves all of those irritating
problems, fiscal, technical and pedagogic, that plagues tablet projects.
Chromebooks have quick start-up times, are robust, secure, use a cloud based
approach that makes delivery of services and content easy and provides good analytics.
At last a country that understands procurement and puts learning needs above
shiny objects. I fly there this week, so hope to report back in more detail,
but here’s a starting primer.


Chromebooks are thin, lightweight devices with physical keyboard. This
is important in terms of learning productivity, as one can type 20% faster than
touchscreen, with less errors, and do far more sophisticated work on essays,
coding, pixel accurate graphics tools etc. than tablet devices allow. (see end of post)

The advantage of a low-cost Chromebook is that it boots quickly,
connects immediately, is browser-based using the internet and cloud, rather
than difficult to manage local storage and apps. This gets both students and
teachers into productive learning quickly and life is a lot easier in terms of
delivery, tracking, assessment, data and security (virus protection is built
in). Remember that this is cloud storage, avoiding local data on the devices,
making them much easier to manage and maintain.

Cloud-based learning

Cloud-based design means access anywhere, anytime from any device and
with Google Apps, you’re not buying licenses for Microsoft and other software. Students
and teachers use Google Apps for email, calendar, documents, data, and much more. As all docs and data
are in the cloud, you don’t have to worry about storage and backups, and OS updates
happen automatically every time you switch it on. Your school does NOT need
servers! Even of a
Chromebook is lost, stolen or broken, no learning data is lost. Focus on WIFI
and you have your comms sorted (note that Chromebooks can also have 3G add-ons
for mobile network access).


IDC comparative research showed that Chromebooks would save $1135 for
each device, as they take 69% less time to deploy and 92% less time to manage.
The per-device costs come out at $7.75 per month over three years. This gives
considerable costs savings when compared to tablets, desktop PCs and laptops.
You can, of course, expect these costs to fall, making it easier to move to one
device per teacher and student.

The good thing about this research is that it really did look at productivity
in terms of real teacher and administration salary costs in relation to support
and classroom downtime. None of the woolly ‘survey-monkey’ qualitative stuff we
get from UK tablet trials.

the research showed that the devices were highly reliable and reduced expensive
teaching and administration time by 82%. This was important as there were often
zero help-desk calls and minimal calls on support across the projects. Above
all, there was no need to worry about redesign and realignment of existing
systems and no problems with losing files. All of this leads to more time on
learning and less on dealing with and fire-fighting IT issues.


The downside
is that Chromebooks do not run Windows, so if you have Windows apps, you may
think you’re in trouble. Fear not, Google provide Windows virtualisation. Internet
dependent devices need adequate and robust wifi, as the applications need to be
run online. This can be a problem if the network is interrupted or fails. Fear
not, Chromebooks cache work so that you can continue until the connection comes
back. You do, however, have to invest in wifi to match use.


advantages for teachers are that the devices start up quickly, are easy to use
and require little support allowing teachers to teach and learners to learn.  In one UK school, James Wilding explains that
they rolled out an enlightened, cloud-based solution as follows:

first - 3 months to bed down the tech and allow the teachers to adjust

Students next
– 3 months

provision – 6 months to build –up expertise, habits, processes and effect
change management

I say ‘enlightened,
as this seems like a sensible approach based on change management, not device
dumps. The excellent Ian Nairn, of c-learning. tells me of a school who have
ditched their expensive tablets for Chromebooks and the cloud.


This is big news. I
also think it is good news. A procurement based on a strong fiscal case, a real
detailed analysis of the technology and long-term support, as well as the idea
that pedagogy should be in the driving seat. Free and low cost solutions on any
device is what cloud-based learning offers. Google Search, Google Docs, Wikipedia,
Khan Academy, email, calendars, blogger – the list goes on and on. I’ll report
back from Malaysia next week.


Other posts on tablets:

Thursday, April 11, 2013

Keep on taking the tablets: 7 reasons why this is lousy advice

Purveyors of the metaphor ‘Keep taking the tablets’ often
fail to realise its downside. Like much over-prescribed medication, it can be pushed
by aggressive sales, lack adequate investigation and diagnosis, be too narrow a
treatment, lack evidence other than placebo effects and have some nasty

I’ve written about tablets in two previous posts 1) Too cool for school: 7 reasons why tablets should NOT be used in education, 2) Tablets: 7 researched ways they can INHIBIT learning This final piece in the triad looks at the bigger picture with
seven reasons  for  being wary of the tablet bandwagon.

1. Aggressive vendors

In an interesting lunch with someone who works for a tablet
manufacturer, and has a great deal of experience and expertise in education and
technology, someone I respect, I encountered some horror stories that do not
appear in the ‘research’. He, like me, despairs of the mad rush towards 1:1
tablets in schools. Both of us own and use tablets and both of us have spent a
lifetime trying to get technology used in education but this latest bandwagon
effect, is worrying. Vendors are too close to Gove and government, with
freebies and special meetings. Beware also the shadowy figures, connected to
government, who have an eye on the low hanging fruit of government contracts.
Witness Rachel Wolf’s rapid rise from Gove researcher to Newscorp tablet

2. Naïve funders

Keep taking the
’ was the title of the E-learning Foundations Conference. This lack
of objectivity by a funding body is simply bandwagon behaviour. A few of the
Trustees are no doubt proud of their ability to look at their Board papers on
their new iPad – note that they rarely take notes, annotate or do anything
productive on their screens and often have the printed papers out at the side.
A little technology is a dangerous thing!

3. Poor diagnosis

Procurement is not just a few columns in a spread-sheet. It
involves the calculation, or at least best effort approximation, of risk. These
risks come in all sorts of shapes – fiscal (purchase, insurance, maintenance
etc.), technical (bandwidth, networking, printing, storage, security, technical
support etc.), adoption (teacher use in classroom, collection from leavers,
illicit use etc.) and change management (governance, leadership issues, parent
reactions, teacher CPD etc.). Few do a really thorough job on this and fewer
still demand an evaluative approach that builds-in quantitative measures on the
evaluation of attainment.

Governors of schools and colleges tend to be older, not
particularly tech savvy and certainly not capable of doing the necessary
governance checks on procurement. With schools breaking free from being
overseen by Local Authorities, that layer of procurement expertise has gone. To
be fair, it was never that good, but its disappearance has led to a lot of
idiosyncratic buying.

Have all of these tablet taking projects really completed a
cost-benefit analysis against  a) Bring
Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy, b) Notebooks/laptops strategy or c) Flip
technology out of the classroom? Have lost-opportunity costs been taken into
account? I doubt it.

4. Narrow treatment

Pedagogy matters. Failure
to plan and cost teacher training can lead to technology slowing down and not
accelerating learning, as hoped. For example, my respected educational
technologists witnessed iPads being collected in by a teacher at the end of the
class ‘for marking’. There are cases of tablets being distributed to students
only and not teachers! Without an implementation plan that involves teachers,
before the tablets are distributed, you are simply creating more problems than
you solve.

Learning needs are very different horizontally across subjects and vertically through age and increasing complexity. The failure to
see the need for long-form writing in English, History and other subjects,
detailed editing in coding, need to have pixel accurate control in graphics
packages and so on renders tablet use literally useless as one moves across the
curriculum. Similarly with increasing demands on productive tasks on learning.
The further up the educational attainment ladder the learner climbs the less
use tablets become.

5. Placebo research

Why do the well-known, negative disasters and negative
findings rarely appear in the research. Medicine is built upon randomised
double-blind trials with rigorous research, education is not. Even I  the oft-quoted Hull report, one disaster,
where iPads were given out yet wifi was only installed months later, was
treated as a mere blip. Most of the research is akin to the placebo effects one
sees in homeopathic medicine. It’s qualitative, survey-monkey-level research
that merely confirms the known fact that if you give kids and teacher a free
iPad they like them. This is the allure of consumer electronics, attention not
proven attainment.

6. Nasty side-effects

Idiosyncratic tablet projects are pregnant with problems. The
technology may bite back as teachers struggle with connectivity, printing,
storage and so on. Teachers can come out in a rash of negativity when their
practical and training needs are ignored. Students may spend huge amounts of
time on relatively shallow learning or other distracting activities


This is an old story in education and technology – the
over-prescription of untried ttechnology as if it were a wonder-drug. Something
new and shiny comes along and before long it’s become a bandwagon, we jump
aboard without thinking too much about where it’s taking us, then the wheels
start to fall off. Even when the wheels have fallen off you don’t get to hear
the bad news, as there’s been so much invested.


I’m not against the use of tablets in schools, I just think
that turning it into a ‘movement’ is a mistake and that too many of these
projects are poorly planned, badly procured and lack proper evaluation.